Research and application of laser cutting and precision sheet metal processing technology
Laser cutting processing is the most important application technology in the laser processing industry, and it is also the earliest and most used processing method in laser processing. It accounts for more than 70% of the entire laser processing industry. This article mainly introduces the principle of laser cutting, the characteristics of laser cutting, the analysis of the main influencing factors of material laser cutting, and the development and analysis of the main process technology of laser cutting.At present, laser cutting is mainly CO2 laser cutting. This article also introduces the main principles of CO2 laser cutting, as well as the processing characteristics of CO2 laser cutting, and the application of CO2 laser cutting in various fields at home and abroad. Introduction and analysis of laser cutting of common engineering materials. The development status and prospect of laser cutting technology, and according to its domestic and foreign development status, pointed out the future development trend of laser cutting technology.
Keywords: laser cutting processing, laser cutting processing, precision sheet metal processing, aluminum plate laser cutting, copper plate laser cutting, Kunshan steel sales, Kunshan plate sales
The principle of laser cutting：
The laser beam is focused into a very small spot whose minimum diameter can be less than 0.1mm), so that a high power density at the focal point can exceed 106W/cm2). At this time, the heat input by the light beam (converted by light energy) far exceeds the part reflected, conducted or diffused by the material, and the material is quickly heated to vaporization humidity and evaporates to form a hole.With the relative linear movement of the light beam and the material, the hole is continuously formed into a slit with a very narrow width (such as about 0.1mm), and then the molten or vaporized substance is blown away from the slit with a high-pressure gas to achieve the effect of cutting the material.Since the traditional mechanical knife is replaced by an invisible beam, the mechanical part of the laser head has no contact with the work, and will not scratch the work surface during work; the laser cutting speed is fast, the incision is smooth and flat, and generally no subsequent processing is required; The cutting heat-affected zone is small, the plate deformation is small, and the slit is narrow (0.1mm~0.3mm); the incision has no mechanical stress, no shearing burr; high processing accuracy, good repeatability, and no damage to the surface of the material; CNC programming, can be processed at will It can cut the whole board with a large size without opening the mold, which is economical and time-saving.
Factors affecting the quality of laser cutting
There are many factors that affect the quality of laser cutting. An important advantage of laser cutting is that it can implement a high degree of control over the main factors in the process, so that the cut workpieces can fully meet customer requirements and have good repeatability. These main factors are composed of process parameters such as cutting speed, focus position, auxiliary gas pressure, and laser output power.In addition to the four most important variables above, factors that may affect cutting quality include beam parameters (mode and power, laser beam polarization, laser beam focus, pulse wave beam) and workpiece characteristics (material surface reflectivity, Material surface condition), as well as other factors such as cutting torch and nozzle, external light path system, workpiece fixation, etc. The cutting quality can be improved by changing the characteristics of the workpiece.Excessive temperature and corrosion of the steel surface can affect the cutting quality. Generally, the temperature of the steel plate is required to be low. The surface temperature of the steel plate can be reduced by adjusting the cutting sequence. After a position is cut, it is required to be adjusted to a farther position for cutting. During the adjustment process, the cutting quality and cutting efficiency must be considered comprehensively: also The temperature of the steel plate can be reduced by using water cooling at the cutting site. The surface of the steel plate is severely corroded, which seriously affects the cutting quality, resulting in large cutting gaps. When cutting holes, waste can not be removed, which increases subsequent processing costs.